Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) was not only involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, but also a potential drug target. More and more studies have recently found that many bioactive ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could regulate the expression levels of genes and proteins by regulating miRNA, lncRNA and circRNA. They participated in various signal pathways, regulated cell proliferation, cycle and apoptosis, and thereby played significant roles in anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-infection and structural remodeling repression. As a new target for bioactive ingredients of TCM, the emergence of ncRNA helped to reveal the action mechanism of TCM from the epigenetic level. Moreover, it provided potential explanation to the multi-target and multi-level action of TCM in diseases, thus promoting the precise medical model of "Chinese medicine ingredients-targets-molecular mechanism-diseases". Therefore, this paper reviewed current researches about bioactive ingredients of TCM targeting ncRNAs, in order to reveal the development status and pointed out the existing problems.