目的 对不同产区种植的栝楼加工获得的瓜蒌进行性状的测定和比较，指出传统道地产区瓜蒌的性状特征。方法 同时采收6个不同产区种植的栝楼果实各20个，在北京的实验室内统一阴干后，测定纵径、横径、纵横比、单果重、果皮重量占比、水溶性浸出物等性状指标，取平均值进行比较和分析。结果 传统道地产区的山东长清庄科产栝楼果实阴干获得的瓜蒌，单果重最重，为95.39 g；纵径最长，为10.22 mm；横径最短，为7.19 mm；纵横比最大，为1.43；果皮重量占比最轻，为23.07%；水溶性浸出物含量较高，为50.44%。结论 山东长清在悠久的瓜蒌生产历史中，形成了外观为长圆形，单果重，水溶性浸出物含量高，成熟度高的性状，具有其他产区种植的栝楼果实所没有的特征，当为道地产区瓜蒌的性状特征。
Objective: To determine and compare the morphological data of the dried ripe fruit of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. (Trichosanthis Fructus) from different regions and to point out some features of Trichosanthis Fructus from the traditional genuine producing areas. Method: The fresh ripe fruits of Trichosanthes kirilowii were picked from six different regions with 20 fruits per one region in the same period of time and were dried in a shade laboratory in Beijing. Some morphological data of vertical diameter, transverse diameter, vertical-transverse ratio, weight of fruit, weight ratio of pericarp, and water-soluble extract yield were determined for every dried fruit and their average values were compared and analyzed. Result: Trichosanthis Fructus harvested from the traditional genuine producing areas of Zhuangke village, Changqing District, Shandong Province have the weighest fruits of 95.39 g, the longest vertical diameter of 10.22 mm, the shortest transverse diameter of 7.19 mm, the maximum vertical-transverse ratio of 1.43, the lightest weight ratio of pericarp of 23.07%, and the higher water-soluble extract yield of 50.44%. Conclusion: In the long history of the production of Trichosanthis Fructus in Changqing district, Shandong province, some morphological features such as long circle and heavy fruit, high yield of water-soluble extract, and high maturity has formed. These morphological features can be supposed to the distinctive characteristics of Trichosanthis Fructus of genuine producing areas, because these data can’t be found in other production areas.